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The technical basis of modern motor transport (AT) consists of: rolling stock, roads and motor transport enterprises (ATP).
Rolling stock: cars, trailers and semitrailers.
Cars in their main purpose are divided into: transport, special and sports.
Vehicles – intended for the carriage of goods and passengers.
Special – to perform various technical functions (lifting cranes, moving compressors, power plants, searchlights, workshops, fire brigades, sanitary and so on).
Sports – to achieve certain speed records.
Transportation, in turn, is divided into three main categories:
a) Passenger cars, which include cars and buses;
b) cargo – for the carriage of goods of different names;
c) tractors that do not have their own cargo capacity and are intended to to semitrailers and trailers.
A special group consists of passenger cars based on passenger transport.
A trailer coupled to a trailer or semi-trailer, as well as a car connected to a trailer, has the name of an auto trains.
The main technical and maintenance characteristics include:
Capacity, which is measured by the number of passengers (for passenger cars); load-carrying capacity – in tonnes and body type (for trucks).
The design speed in km / h, engine power, the number of all and driving wheels, the total weight in kg, the maximum load (the pressure on the road from the separate axis of the car, overall dimensions: length, width, height of the car or a train).
In terms of capacity, buses are divided into:
– especially small capacity – up to 10 seats (length -5 m)
– small capacity -10-35 seats (length – 6.0-7.5 m)
– average capacity – 35-60 seats (length 8.0-8.5 m)
– Large capacity – 60-100 seats (length 10,5-12 m)
– especially large capacity – more than 100 seats (length 12-16.5 m).
By appointment, buses are divided into: city, suburban, local, long-distance, tourist and sightseeing.
Cars are divided by engine cylinder capacity into the following classes:
– especially small – up to 1.2 l;
– small – 1,2 – 1,8 l;
– average – 1.8 – 3.5 l;
– large – more than 3.5 liters.