Classification of Trucks

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For the transportation of goods by road enterprises, the cargo rolling stock is used: trucks and car trailers of different load-carrying capacity (on-board, dump trucks, vans, including isothermal, tanks and others), cars of high pass, car-tractors with semitrailers. This part of the transport network also has its ramified structure.

Classification of goods vehicles for different reasons is as follows:

By body type

closed type, container ,tent, refrigerator (isothermal body), isothermal van, minibus ,open type, on-board, dump truck ,container platform, tap, motor carrier, tank, timber truck, truck tractor

In groups

Group I – on-board cars (general-purpose vans).

Group II – specialized (dump trucks, vans, refrigerators, container trucks, trailers with semitrailers, ballast tractors with trailers).

Group III (conditionally) – tank cars.

By the number of axes




five-axis and more

By axial load (on the most loaded axle)

Up to 6 tons inclusive

6 to 10 tons inclusive

more than 6 tons up to 10 tons inclusive

Behind the wheel formula

4Х2 – a two-axle car with one driving axle, 4Х4 – a two-axle car with two driving axles, 6Х4 – a three-axle car with two driving axles, 6Х6 – a three-axle car with all the driving axles

By stock

single vehicle road train consisting of:

          – car-trailer, – car-semitrailer

By type of engine

Gasoline, diesel engines

International Classification of Motor Vehicles

Category M – Motor vehicles with at least four wheels used for the carriage of passengers.

    M1 – motor vehicles with, except the driver’s seat, no more than 8 seats for seats.

     M2 – motor vehicles with, except for a driver’s seat, more than 8 seats.

     M3 – vehicles with, apart from the driver’s seat, more than 8 seating positions and a maximum weight of less than 5 tons.


Category N – Motor vehicles intended for the carriage of goods having at least four wheels.

     N1 – full weight up to 3.5 tons.

     N2 – full weight from 3.5 to 12 tons.

     N3 – full weight over 12 tons.

Category O – trailers and semitrailers.

     O1 -the total weight is not less than 0.75 tons.

     O2-total weight from 0.75 to 3.5 tons.

     O3-total weight 3.5 to 10 tons.

     О4 – full weight more than 10 tons.

Such variety of methods of classification is explained by the need for the selection of particular parameters of vehicles for the choice of the last for the transportation of goods on the basis of the optimal combination of efficiency, delivery speed, commercial suitability, safety, capacity, capacity, etc.

The list of these grounds is approximate, since it can be extended based on certain functional assignments of vehicles, their operational characteristics, the specifics of the goods transported, etc.